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Fourteenth Amendment
Proposed on June 13, 1866.  Ratified on July 9, 1868.

Sect. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Sect. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Sect. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Sect. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Sect. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Order of State Ratification


Connecticut Jun 25, 1866 New Hampshire Jul 6, 1866
Tennessee Jul 19, 1866 New Jersey Sep 11, 1866
Oregon Sep 19, 1866 Vermont Oct 30, 1866
Ohio Jan 4, 1867 New York Jan 10, 1867
Kansas Jan 11, 1867 Illinois Jan 15, 1867
West Virginia Jan 16, 1867 Michigan Jan 16, 1867
Minnesota Jan 16, 1867 Maine Jan 19, 1867
Nevada Jan 22, 1867 Indiana Jan 23, 1867
Missouri Jan 25, 1867 Rhode Island Feb 7, 1867
Wisconsin Feb 7, 1867 Pennsylvania Feb 12, 1867
Massachusetts Mar 20, 1867 Nebraska Jun 15, 1867
Iowa Mar 16, 1868 Arkansas Apr 6, 1868
Florida Jun 9, 1868 North Carolina Jul 4, 1868
Louisiana Jul 9, 1868 South Carolina Jul 9, 1868
Alabama Jul 13, 1868 Georgia Jul 21, 1868
Virginia Oct 8, 1869 Mississippi Jan 17, 1870
Texas Feb 18, 1870 Delaware Feb 12, 1901
Maryland Apr 4, 1959 California May 6, 1959
Kentucky Mar 18, 1976
Denotes last state required for ratification.

Court Cases

Cox Broadcasting Corporation v. Cohn
Nebraska Press Assoc. v. Stuart
New York v. Ferber
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973): Mr. Justice Rehnquist, Dissenting

References and Articles

The 14th Amendment is Ratified
Scope and Application
Fourteenth Amendment - Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection
The Fourteenth Amendment: First Amendment II?
Fourteenth Amendment
The Death of Colorado Amendment 2: Fourteenth Amendment in Action!
Was the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Ratified?
The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights
Fourteenth Amendment - Equal Protection under the Law?
Fourteenth Amendment Citizenship
Roger Pilon and the 14th Amendment