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Eighth Amendment
Proposed on September 25, 1789.  Ratified on December 15, 1791.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Order of State Ratification

 

New Jersey Nov 20, 1789 Maryland Dec 19, 1789
North Carolina Dec 22, 1789 South Carolina Jan 19, 1790
New Hampshire Jan 25, 1790 Delaware Jan 28, 1790
New York Feb 24, 1790 Pennsylvania Mar 10, 1790
Rhode Island Jun 7, 1790 Vermont Nov 3, 1791
Virginia Dec 15, 1791 Massachusetts Mar 2, 1939
Georgia Mar 18, 1939 Connecticut Apr 19, 1939
Denotes last state required for ratification.

Court Cases

Stanford v. Kentucky
Thompson v. Oklahoma
Booth v. Maryland
Monte Durham v. U.S.
Hinson v. Edmond

References and Articles

Introduction to the Eighth Amendment
Bill of Rights - 8th Amendment
It's Not Unusual
Cruel and Unusual?
Failure To Protect In Prison Fight Violates 8th Amendment
"A Theory of Constitution Interpretation" by Justice Antonin Scalia
Death Penalty
Is the Death Penalty Constitutional?
U.S. Must Repay Tarzana Man